Ammonium perchlorate and aluminum

Ammonium perchlorate and aluminum

Aluminum reacts rapidly with ammonium perchlorate, NH 4 ClO 4. From balanced equation, there is 3:3 that is 1:1 mol ratio between aluminum and ammonium perchlorate. APCP is considered a 'composite fuel' because on the microscopic level it consists of crystalline particles of oxidizer and fuel held together in a binder. com, your premiere source for free downloads of government and military standards, specifications The following is an alphabetic list of all of the chemical ingredients that are contained in the PAN Pesticides Database. A perchlorate is the name for a chemical compound containing the perchlorate ion, ClO − 4. Ammonium perchlorate composite propellant is a composite propellant, meaning that it has both fuel and oxidizer mixed with a rubbery binder, all combined into a homogeneous mixture. Updated: 12/2015HDPE Chemical Resistance Guide Legend: S = Satisfactory O = Some attack U = Unsatisfactory 2 of 5 Reagent 70” F (21” C) 140” F (60” C) ReagentHere are some examples: Aluminum sulfide - Al2S3 ; Beryllium chloride - BeCl2 ; Boron iodide - BI3 ; Calcium nitride - Ca3N2 ; Copper phosphide - Cu3PGeneral Chemistry is a free introductory textbook on chemistry. Ammonium perchlorate (AP) is produced by reaction between ammonia and perchloric acid, and is the main reason for the industrial production of perchloric acid. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL INFORMATION Table 4-2. Burn rate catalysts determine how quickly the mixture Aluminum and Ammonium Perchlorate. For chemical names that begin with a symbol (C2H5)2O Ether (NH4)2C2O4 Ammonium Oxalate (NH4)2CO3 Ammonium Carbonate (NH4)2CrO4 Ammonium Chromate (NH4)2HPO4 Di-Ammonium Phosphate (NH4)2S Ammonium SulfideBismuth Carbonate 180 Black Liquor 150 Bleach—see Sodium Hypochlorite 12. Community Right-to-Know: List of Hazardous Substances . This results from the mixture of the reducing ammonium cation and the oxidizing chlorate anion. This reaction heats the inside of the solid rocket boosters to 5,800 o F, causing the two gases to expand rapidly. Perchlorate has also The ammonium salt of the perchlorate ion is manufactured primarily for use by the Department of Defense, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the aerospace industry as a source of oxygen in solid propellant systems for rockets and mis-siles. R. Ammonium perchlorate ("AP") is an inorganic compound with the formula NH ClO. Ammonium Perchlorate may also be prepared by adding sodium perchlorate to ammonium hydroxide and then bubbling carbon dioxide into the mixture. The added aluminum had a slightly greater effect than the ammonium perchlorate, particu- larly as the concentration of ammonium perchlorate was increased. 5X10 , 2. The laser 7 сен 20098 янв 2009Discovery's upward thrust at lift-off came from a solid mixture of ammonium perchlorate and aluminum metal, along with an iron oxide catalyst to speed the 27 Jan 2012 Page 1 of 2 - Ignition of ammonium perchlorate and aluminum - posted in Pyrotechnics: I wanted to ask anybody who worked with APCP, but 15 Apr 2016 For the SLS boosters, aluminum powder serves as the fuel and a The powerful aluminum-ammonium perchlorate reaction fuels the twin SLS "Combustion of ammonium perchlorate-aluminum mixtures", Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. For this reason, this dissertation presented a detail preparation of developing a solid propellant using Ammonium Perchlorate (AP) as an oxidizer, Aluminum (Al) as fuel and Hydroxyl Terminated Polybutadiene (HTPB) as the binder. The coefficients on both reactants are three; the coefficients on water and nitrogen monoxide are six and three, respectively; the other coefficients are one. A reduction in Combustion Response of Ammonium Perchlorate Michael Shusser¤and Fred E. Unless otherwise specified, the prices are, from left to right, the 1lb, 5lb, 10lb and 20 lb prices. , is a At liftoff, a space shuttle uses a solid mixture of ammonium perchlorate and aluminum powder to obtain great thrust from the volume change of solid to gas. PY - 1988/1/1. org/doi/10. Y1 - 1988/1/1. The PEPCON plant, located in Henderson, Nevada, 10 miles (16 km) from Las Vegas, was one of only two American producers of ammonium perchlorate ("AP"), an The following is an alphabetic list of all of the chemical ingredients that are contained in the PAN Pesticides Database. , and J. This page lists propellant formulation information not available in the "How To Make Amateur Rockets" book. Commonly used perchlorate salts include ammonium perchlorate and potassium perchlorate. 04%), and an epoxy curing agent (1. 6% by weight), aluminum (fuel, 16%), iron oxide (a catalyst, 0. + MAGNALIUM MG/AL MAGNESIUM ALUMINUM ALLOY 1LB 1 POUND. Building collapse, severe injury/deathDensity tables of popular reagents solutions - sodium hydroxide NaOH, sulfuric acid H2SO4, acetic acid CH3COOH, hydrochloric acid HCl, ammonia NH3Background. Perchlorates are salts derived from perchloric acid and are commonly used within the pyrotechnics industry. Such composites generally are composed of an oxidizer, which usually is ammonium nitrate or a perchlorate, e. 49 g/mol. g. pitch, styrene polymers, or a polysulfide rubber, and/or a metal fuel, for example, aluminum powder. Ammonium perchlorate (AP) is produced by reaction between ammonia and perchloric acid. It is im-portant to emphasize that ammonium perchlorate is not rocket fuel; it is an additive. The point was that the hydrogen didn’t cause the fire but a static spark ingited the skin. Write the balanced equation for ammonium perchlorate and aluminum metal reacting to produce aluminum chloride nitrogen monoxide aluminum oxide and water vapor? alcl4+cl3 share with friends Best Answer: Aluminum metal reacts with ammonium perchlorate to form aluminum oxide, aluminum chloride, nitrogen monoxide, and water. AU - Taylor, Dale M. The persistence of perchlorate in groundwater results primarily The rates of thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate and an ammonium perchlorate solid propellant at 15, 25, and 50 kilobars (1. 5 Jan 2018 Laser ignition of stoichiometric mixture based on aluminum nanopowder and ammonium perchlorate were studied experimentally. Crystallization of Ammonium-Perchlorate from Solution of Electrolytically Produced Sodium-Perchlorate in a Pilot- Scale Plant 3 2. Additional products include; morphous boron powder, aluminum powder, non-ferrous metal powders, zinc sulfate, copper sulfate and ferrous sulfate. Each solid rocket booster had four hold-down posts that fit into corresponding support posts on the mobile launcher platform. 0XlO N/m ) pressure were studied in a cubic anvil press. Delete A novel nanocomposite catalyst for thermal degradation of the ammonium perchlorate (AP) has been synthesized, and its effect on the thermal behavior of AP has been investigated. Culick† California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 and Norman S. Comments: The sulfur can be replaced by antimony trisulfide and the sound of a salute made with this composition will change very little. com, your premiere source for free downloads of government and military standards, specifications (C2H5)2O Ether (NH4)2C2O4 Ammonium Oxalate (NH4)2CO3 Ammonium Carbonate (NH4)2CrO4 Ammonium Chromate (NH4)2HPO4 Di-Ammonium Phosphate (NH4)2S Ammonium SulfideSolid Rocket Propellant Formulation Data. ammonium perchlorate. IDENTIFICATION Ammonium Perchlorate is an odorless, white, sand-like powder. 1989]. Hold-down posts. Names, Symbols, and Oxidation Numbers of Common Elements and Polyatomic Ions +1 Oxidation No. Combustion of ammonium perchlorate-aluminum mixtures | Journal arc. At liftoff, the space shuttle uses a solid mixture of ammonium perchlorate and aluminum powder to obtain great thrust from the volume change of solid to gas. Physical and Chemical Properties of Perchloratesa Property Magnesium perchlorate Potassium perchlorate Ammonium perchlorate Sodium perchlorate Lithium perchlorate Incompatibilities Oil, grease, benzene, calcium hydride, charcoal, olefins, ethanol, strontium hydride, sulfur, sulfuric acid, and Ammonium Perchlorate Introduction. Let's look at the reaction and then write a balanced 21 Sep 2018 PDF | Laser ignition of stoichiometric mixture based on aluminum nanopowder and ammonium perchlorate were studied experimentally. STUDY. Sigman§ Georgia Institute of Technology School of Aerospace Engineering Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0150 ABSTRACT 4. large amounts of aluminum significantly increased the specific impulse of a castable composite propellant. 49 . +2 Oxidation No. nium perchlorate concentration constant) also sharply reduced T. 333. With aluminum, they are widely used in missiles and space launchers. ISSN 17 -7178 Detonation Performance of Aluminium – Ammonium Nitrate Explosives Józef PASZULA*, Waldemar A. / SEETHARAMACHARYULU, D. Chapter 6: Flash, Burst Charges and Whistle Mix Flash #1 Source: Lancaster[2], listed as Thunder #1 . The oxidizer is a mixture of ammonium nitrate and ammonium perchlorate, the key part being the “ate” on (lactose-aluminum-ammonium perchlorate) when Alex was compared to aluminum flakes. . $22. Potassium Perchlorate W/ anti-cake High purity -325 Mesh chemistry - chapter 7 review. * Ammonium Perchlorate may affect the kidneys. Organic Compounds :: Chemistry Applications:: » Chemical Elements, Periodic Table » Compound Name Formula SearchFrequently asked questions are answered on amateur rocket motors and rocketsVehicle-Borne IED (Car) Mandatory Evacuation distance: 320 feet. The solid fuel in the booster stage of the space shuttle is a mixture of ammonium perchlorate and aluminum powder. It is a When AP is mixed with a fuel (like a powdered aluminium and/or with an elastomeric binder), it can generate self-sustained combustion at far under Discovery's upward thrust at lift-off came from a solid mixture of ammonium perchlorate and aluminum metal, along with an iron oxide catalyst to speed the Aluminum and Ammonium Perchlorate. Ammonium perchlorate (AP) is an oxidizer than can be mixed with aluminum and other materials to create a solid propellant. Ammonium Perchlorate from Sodium Perchlorate and Ammonium Chloride The following assumes that ALL traces of Chlorate have been destroyed before conversion of the Sodium Perchlorate into Ammonium Perchlorate. companyof1. . 436-438. K. For chemical names that begin with a symbol 23. Effect of the nature of nitramines on aluminum agglomeration and combustion efficiency. sodium perchlorate might be reacted with ammonia gas in the presence of carbon dioxide, to produce ammonium perchlorate. ChemicalReaction Ammonium Perchlorate Liquid Aluminum Reactants Liquid Ammonium Perchlorate Liquid Aluminum ReactantCounts 6 10 Products Water Nitrogen Aluminum Oxide Aluminum Chloride ProductCounts 12 3 4 2 AutoignitionTemperature_K 924 CharacteristicLength_m . 6 (1979), pp. 95 g/ml), which allows it to sink. A common binder Potassium perchlorate 72 Aluminium 28 Potassium perchlorate 70 Aluminium 27 Sulfur 3 Potassium perchlorate 64 Aluminium 23 Sulfur 13 The first had a detonation velocity of 1223m/s, the second 1418m/s and the third 1427m/s. 1g HMTD blasting cap, was extremely loud. 2514/3. 89 At first, I found it surprising, but when I did some research and had a second though about it, I learned that when NASA or any other space agency launches a space ship, it consumes about 773 tons of ammonium perchlorate, and releases some 230 tons of hydrochloric acid immediately after launch. Hydroxyl Terminated Polybutadiene (HTPB) The first ingredient in a composite propellant is the binder. It differs from many traditional solid rocket propellants such as black powder or zinc-sulfur, not only in chemical composition and overall performance, but also by the nature of how it is processed. https://doi. 000 kilograms of aluminum metal? ammonium perchlorate was increased by replacing binder (constant aluminum concen- tration). PEPCON was one of two manufacturers of AP in the United States, and supplied AP to NASA for the Space Shuttle. 1-16 of 236 results for "ammonium perchlorate" Showing selected results. According to the Thiokol Cehmical Corporation, liquid thiokol is produced by condensing ethylene chlorohydrin to dichlorodiethylformal, which is then treated with sodium polysulfide to obtain the finished product. : In this reaction, aluminum is oxidized by ammonium perchlorate. Anthropogenic Sources Perchlorate is a manufactured compound that includes perchloric acid and salts such as ammonium, potassium, and sodium perchlorate. First let's look at the oxidaiton of the aluminum and then see what happens to the amonium perchlorate. MDL number MFCD00011421. IUPAC Standard InChIKey: BGZZNVNAKMESMV-UHFFFAOYSA-N CAS Registry Number: 7790-98-9 Chemical structure: This structure is also available as a 2d Mol file; Permanent link for this species. We offer Ammonium Perchlorate in any micron size, for sale at the best rates AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE is a white, crystalline solid or powder. How to Polish a New Cast Iron Pan New Cast Iron VS Old Cast Iron - Duration: 14:42. Sources include the manufacturing or testing of solid rocket fuels and the manufacturing of ammonium perchlorate, fireworks, and certain types of fertilizers. The salt also can be produced by salt metathesis reaction of ammonium salts with sodium perchlorate. Linear Formula NH 4 ClO 4. 5 150 Borax, Sodium Borate 180 Boric Acid 180 Brine 180 Bromic Acid NR Bromine Dry NRNew York City Department of Environmental Protection . The laser Ammonium perchlorate (AP) is produced by reaction between ammonia and perchloric acid. NOTE: These propellants are based on polyethylene sulfide rubbers mixed with ammonium perchlorate. Save ammonium perchlorate to get e-mail alerts and updates on your eBay Feed. Ammonium Perchlorate: Boron Powder (Amorphous) HTPB (R45-HTLO) Aluminum Powder: Boron Carbide Powder: CRS Chemicals, a division of C. Space shuttle SRB motor consists of ammonium perchlorate (oxidizer, 69. is a U. fireworks, some allow only "Safe and Sane" fireworks (Class C fireworks that do not move or leave the ground), and some states or counties and cities ban the Frequently asked questions are answered on amateur rocket motors and rocketsVehicle-Borne IED (Car) Mandatory Evacuation distance: 320 feet. A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound, using a single line of chemical element symbols and numbers. Granulation: 90 Microns 200 Microns 400 Microns *Material can be milled to your required particle size down to 50 Microns. In the presence of a catalyst, the mixture forms solid aluminum oxide and aluminum chloride and gaseous water and nitrogen monoxide. AN mixtures burns slower than AP mixtures. 28020"Combustion of ammonium perchlorate-aluminum mixtures", Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. Sodium bicarbonate will precipitate out, since its solubility is reduced in alkaline solution. by Alpha Chemicals. aiaa. Explosively decomposes at or over 400°C. +3 Oxidation No. Dokhan* Jacobs Sverdrup, Naval Systems Group Ridgecrest, California 93555 E. Let's look at the reaction and then write a balanced equation. N2 - The spectral intensity (790 nm) emitted during the combustion of pressed pellets composed of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and aluminum has been measured. Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves 42 :4, 436-449 Online publication date: 1-Jul-2006. Backwoods Gourmet Channel Recommended for you lowest prices on aluminum, ammonium perchlorate, antimony sulfide, asphaltum Please note that there are price breaks per pound, the more that you get. TY - JOUR. Ammonium Perchlorate Composite Propellant. The Ignition of Ultra-Fine Aluminum in Ammonium Perchlorate Solid Propellant Flames A. The electrolytic section of ammonium-perchlorate production facility In the electrolytic section of the ammonium-perchlorate production facility, the sum POTASSIUM PERCHLORATE is a strong oxidizing agent. Standards from: MIL-SPECS-MIL-A PAGE: 1/19 Welcome to EverySpec. ammonium perchlorate, and a fuel, which may be an organic compound, e. 20. Government Contractor & Supplier to Defense & Commercial industries. Explosions have occurred in propellant formulations containing ammonium perchlorate to which ferrocene has been added as a burning rate catalyst. Classified as a division 1. Perchlorate is present in matches, automotive air bag inflators, nuclear reactors, electronic tubes, and lubricating oils. Perchlorate is also used as sodium perchlorate, aluminum perchlorate, hydrazine perchlorate, hydrogen perchlorate, hydroxylammonium perchlorate, lithium perchlorate, magnesium perchlorate, nitronium perchlorate, and as Aluminum Perchlorate = Al(ClO4)3 Al = Aluminum Cl - Chlorine O = Oxygen Its molecular weight is 325. Aluminum powder (not shavings TY - JOUR. Mixture with powdered magnesium is a friction-sensitive explosive [Safety Eng. Ammonium Perchlorate from Sodium Perchlorate and Ammonium Nitrate The following assumes that ALL traces of Chlorate have been destroyed before conversion of the Sodium Perchlorate into Ammonium Perchlorate. This process is the main outlet for the industrial production of perchloric acid. We offer Ammonium Perchlorate in any micron size, for sale at the best rates Ammonium tetraperchloratoaluminate can be formed by three moles of nitronium perchlorate, one mole of anhydrous aluminium chloride, and one mole of ammonium perchlorate combined in liquid sulfur dioxide. Erkman ABSTRACT: Addition of aluminum to ammonium perchlorate (AP) increases its infin:Lte diameter detonation velocity, decreases its critical Ammonium Perchlorate 90 Micron - 1 Lb ALUMINUM GERMAN DARK PYRO (5413H SUPER) 1LB 1 POUND 4. ammonium perchlorate is Salt I'll tell you the Acid or Base or Salt list below. The deflagration-to-detonation transition for low-density charges was investigated. / MALLYA, R. Loading Close. Hence, HMX/AP based explosive compositions have been extensively prepared and used, such as PBXN-110, PBXN-111 and PBXW-114 [6] . In the boosters, the aluminum powder and ammonium perchlorate are held together by a binder, polybutadiene acrylonitrile, or PBAN. A B; ammonium perchlorate: NH4ClO4: cobalt (III) acetate: aluminum perchlorate: Al(ClO4)3: aluminum The three most common types of propellants are compressed powder, usually black powder, sugar propellant (most commonly sucrose, dextrose and most recently, sorbitol) and composite propellant using ammonium nitrate or ammonium perchlorate as the oxidizer and a powdered metal (usually aluminum or magnesium) as the fuel). Brand New. NOTICE: New Restrictions on AP Purchases Due to increased Department of Homeland Security (DHS) concerns, we have placed new restrictions on all Ammonium Perchlorate (AP) purchases. Seitzman‡ and R. The solution will then contain dissolved ammonium perchlorate Ammonium Perchlorate: Boron Powder (Amorphous) HTPB (R45-HTLO) Aluminum Powder: Boron Carbide Powder: CRS Chemicals, a division of C. Today, ammonium perchlorate and the other perchlorate salts are used in a wide range of applications, including pyrotechnics and fireworks, blasting agents, matches, lubricating oils, textile dye fixing, nuclear reactors, electronic tubes, tanning and finishing leather, rubber manufacturing, electroplating, aluminum refinishing, automobile air Ammonium perchlorate 99. Aluminum reacts rapidly with ammonium perchlorate, NH4ClO4. In the booster rocket for the space shuttle, aluminum metal reacts with ammonium perchlorate to form aluminum oxide, aluminum chloride, nitrogen monoxide, and water (plus lots of energy). Reich, All Rights Reserved Last updated 10/14/2018 18:04:48SPACE SHUTTLE SOLID ROCKET MOTOR The SRM is cast in four segments in Utah and then transported by rail to KSC, Florida, where they are stacked vertically in pairs Start studying General Chemistry 105 Chapters 1 - 6. It's "slow" compared to organic HE's, of course, but it's extremely fast compared to BP. As I told you earlier, ammonium perchlorate (AP) is not available in all countries. It has two reactants and four products. Ammonium perchlorate, the salt of perchloric acid and ammonia, is a powerful oxidizer (read: majorly explosive). It also can be produced by reaction of ammonium salts with sodium perchlorate . High purity, submicron and nanopowder forms may be considered. 2 Pounds - Aluminum - 5 micron What is the balanced molecular equation for the reaction of aluminum metal with ammonium perchlorate? Comparative DFT Study of Crystalline Ammonium Perchlorate and Ammonium Dinitramide Weihua Zhu , Tao Wei , Wei Zhu and Heming Xiao The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 2008 112 (20), 4688-4693 Ammonium chlorate is a very unstable oxidizer and will decompose, sometimes violently, at room temperature. reacting the sodium perchlorate with ammonium chloride. Oxygen from ammonium perchlorate combines with aluminum metal to produce aluminum oxide--the white solid Al 2 O 3-- and aluminum chloride, AlCl 3, water vapor and nitrogen gas. Ammonium Perchlorate: 98. the solid fuel in the booster stage of the the space shuttle is a mixture of ammonium perchlorate and aluminum powder, which react as follows. 5X10 , and 5. However, there were other reports where nanometric aluminum showed either no improvement of performance or even a decrease of performance15-18. Aluminum and Ammonium Perchlorate. It is used in analytical chemistry and as an etching and engraving agent. [4][5] This propellant is commonly referred to as Best Answer: Aluminum metal reacts with ammonium perchlorate to form aluminum oxide, aluminum chloride, nitrogen monoxide, and water. Aluminum Perchlorate Al(ClO4)3 Molar Mass, Molecular Weight Combustion of ammonium perchlorate-aluminum mixtures (English) National licence PAI VERNEKER / V. The sodium perchlorate is then reacted with ammonium and chloride ions to produce ammonium perchlorate and the by-product, sodium chloride. The propellant they used was 21 percent aluminum, 59 percent ammonium perchlorate, and 20 percent plasticized polyvinyl chloride. See the editorial for more information. Many Manufacturer and distributor of a large variety of chemical products including ammonium perchlorate. 96%). Updated: 12/2015HDPE Chemical Resistance Guide Legend: S = Satisfactory O = Some attack U = Unsatisfactory 2 of 5 Reagent 70” F (21” C) 140” F (60” C) ReagentThis is a list of common chemical compounds with chemical formulas and CAS numbers, indexed by formula. 07. 0. Which of the following is not What is it? Perchlorate is a manufactured chemical and colorless salt that is most commonly used in rocket fuel. In the presence of a catalyst, the mixture forms solid aluminum oxide and aluminum trichloride and gaseous water and nitrogen monoxide. C. Ammonium Perchlorate (NH4ClO4) is an inorganic compound, it is also known as AP It is a powerful oxidiser and commonly used in solid propellants. Clairmont, Jr. tl;dr Potassium Perchlorate will work in place of Ammonium Perchlorate, but will have lower ISP. Ammonium Perchlorate has been use extensively as a solid oxidizer in rocket propellants. Decomposes at 130°C and explodes at 380°C [Mellor 2 Supp. If you want to quickly find the word you want to search, use Ctrl + F, then type the word you want to search. ammonium perchlorate and aluminum 48906. 8% Min. The oxidizer is a mixture of ammonium nitrate and ammonium perchlorate, the key part being the “ate” on Ammonium Perchlorate from Sodium Perchlorate and Ammonium Chloride The following assumes that ALL traces of Chlorate have been destroyed before conversion of the Sodium Perchlorate into Ammonium Perchlorate. i got the Is aluminum chloride a lewis acid or base KClO4 ( POTASSIUM PERCHLORATE ) is neutral What is an acid, base, neutr Start studying AMHS Chem H test 1/13. Ammonium perchlorate (AP) is a widely used oxidizing agent in composite propellants, and it has been extensively investigated in various propellant and pyrotechnic ammunitions . 200 Micron Ammonium Perchlorate Oxidizer Propellant Chemicals Standard grade rotary rounded 200 micron AP w/TCP (hazmat charges apply). New York City Department of Environmental Protection . The thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and ammonium-perchlorate-based composite propellants is studied using the simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry (STMBMS) technique. It is a powerful oxidizer. Price†, J. It is also used as an animal fattening agent and in explosives. Ammonium perchlorate (NH4ClO4) has been used as an energetics booster in rocket fuels, and it appears most perchlorate contamination is the result of dis-charge from rocket fuel manufacturing plants or from the demilitarization of weaponry (missiles). the name of the compound PI₃ is. Ammonium perchlorate is also manufac-tured for use as an oxidizer in fireworks and Ammonium perchlorate + aluminum mixtures are usually used as solid fuel propellants in modern booster rockets. 16, No. Hold-down bolts held Standards from: MIL-SPECS-MIL-A PAGE: 1/19 Welcome to EverySpec. 999% trace metals basis CAS Number 7790-98-9. Very impressive color compositions can be made with it, but their burn rate is often too low for use in star compositions. 4%), a polymer (such as PBAN or HTPB, serving as a binder that holds the mixture together and acting as secondary fuel, 12. Formulas of binary ionic compounds & molecular compounds. The mixture, with the consistency of a rubber eraser, is then packed into a steel case. Search. The molar mass and molecular weight of NH4ClO4 - Ammonium Perchlorate is 117. TRZCIŃSKI and Katarzyna SPRZĄTCZAK Military University of Technology, Ammonium perchlorate (perchlorate) is a primary ingredient in solid rocket propellant and has been used for decades by the Department of Defense (DOD), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the defense industry in the manufacturing, testing, and firing of rockets and missiles. 99 $ 18 99 $23. 25. (Rocket Fuel w/o binder) Skip navigation Sign in. Backwoods Gourmet Channel Recommended for you Ammonium perchlorate (AP) is a white, crystalline, solid or powder inorganic compound with the formula NH 4 ClO 4. This video is unavailable. Today, ammonium perchlorate and the other perchlorate salts are used in a wide range of applications, including pyrotechnics and fireworks, blasting agents, matches, lubricating oils, textile dye fixing, nuclear reactors, electronic tubes, tanning and finishing leather, rubber manufacturing, electroplating, aluminum refinishing, automobile air EXPLOSIVE BEHAVIOR OF ALUMINIZED AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE Prepared by Donna Price, A. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 122 :18, 10240-10247 Online publication date: 10-May-2018. Small test of Ammonium Perchlorate + Aluminum. EC Number 232-235-1. mixed with ammonium perchlorate oxidizer (which provides higher performance than potassium perchlorate and burns cleaner) and large proportions of powdered aluminum. com, your premiere source for free downloads of government and military standards, specifications Density tables of popular reagents solutions - sodium hydroxide NaOH, sulfuric acid H2SO4, acetic acid CH3COOH, hydrochloric acid HCl, ammonia NH3The following is an alphabetic list of all of the chemical ingredients that are contained in the PAN Pesticides Database. 89 Ammonium perchlorate 70% Aluminium dust 30% and small amount of iron oxide 6 Solid fuel base for space shuttle Barium peroxide 90% Magnesium dust 5% Aluminium dust 5% 10 Alternate flash powder Perchlorate mixtures: Potassium Perchlorate is the standard today at the fireworks industry. It has two reactants and four products. Even solutions are known to be unstable. Let's look at the reaction and then write a balanced Apr 15, 2016 For the SLS boosters, aluminum powder serves as the fuel and a The powerful aluminum-ammonium perchlorate reaction fuels the twin SLS Sep 7, 2009 110g Ammonium Perchlorate/Aluminum. M. In the patented recipe for Tannerite, the fuel is aluminum powder with some titanium. $18. Perchlorates are both naturally occurring and manufactured. Frequently asked questions are answered on amateur rocket motors and rocketsVehicle-Borne IED (Car) Mandatory Evacuation distance: 320 feet. T1 - Radiative properties of burning aluminum droplets. Given mass of Al is 1 kg and we are asked to calculate the mass of ammonium perchlorate for it. 2514/ May 2, 1972 Addition of aluminum to ammonium perchlorate (AP) increases its infinite diameter detonation velocity, decreases its critical diameter. Here is a way to make it. ammonium perchlorate and aluminumAmmonium perchlorate composite propellant (APCP) is a modern solid-propellant rocket used The perchlorate serves as the oxidizer, while the binder and aluminum serve as the fuel. Decomposed by organic matter (reducible material) and on concussion [Merck 11th ed. Ammonium Perchlorate (AP) is a mixture of materials that have long been used in the production of ballistic missiles, military attack missiles, space applications, and others application. 2 out of 5 stars 8. att tie,' Joan ~trawson,~ and Jay zhao2 I Air Force Research Laboratoty, WPAFB, OH 45433-5707 2~oxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment, Cincinnati, OH 4521 1 PERCHLORATE OCCURRENCE AND EXPOSURE Sources of Perchlorate Ammonium perchlorate is the oxidizer ingredient in solid propellant mixtures Is ammonium perchlorate ( NH4ClO4 ) an acid or base or salt ? Is ammonium perchlorate an acid or base or salt ? aluminum chloride (lewis) bh3 (lewis) the binder, aluminum (Al) as the metal fuel, ammonium perchlorate (AP) as the oxidizer, and Isophoronediisocyanate (IPDI) as the curing agent. The reaction mechanism of nanometric aluminum in explosives is as yet unclear. Aluminum Perchlorate Al(ClO4)3 Molar Mass, Molecular Weight Ammonium perchlorate (NH 4 CLO 4) is a white crystalline substance. Modern composite propellants are heterogeneous powders (mixtures) that use a crystallized or finely ground mineral salt as an oxidizer, often ammonium perchlorate, which constitutes between 60% and 90% of the mass of the propellant. How much ammonium perchlorate is required to react with each 1. S. 98 g/mol and molar mass of ammonium perchlorate is 117. • These separate lines of research led from development of the Polaris and Minuteman missiles Perchlorate is highly soluble and mobile in groundwater, and is resistant to degradation in that environment. Preferred Evacuation distance: 1,900 feet. Molecular Weight 117. Dependences of the detonation velocity of pressed charges with different types of aluminum on the Such composites generally are composed of an oxidizer, which usually is ammonium nitrate or a perchlorate, e. A common binder A novel nanocomposite catalyst for thermal degradation of the ammonium perchlorate (AP) has been synthesized, and its effect on the thermal behavior of AP has been investigated. Aluminum Perchlorate Nonahydrate is generally immediately available in most volumes. The proportion for liquid thiokol to perchlorate is usually 20 sodium perchlorate and ammonium and ammonium chloride, and crystallized from water as the anhydrous salt. It is used in the leather tanning and finishing chemicals, as a fixer for fabric and dyes, electroplating, aluminum refining, rubber manufacturing, and in the production of paints and enamels. This website is dedicated to our specially produced types of AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE. 2 Pounds - Aluminum - 30 micron. • These separate lines of research led from development of the Polaris and Minuteman missiles Ammonium nitrate composite propellant often uses magnesium and/or aluminum as fuel and delivers medium performance (I sp of about 210 sec) whereas Ammonium Perchlorate Composite Propellant often uses aluminum fuel and delivers high performance (vacuum I sp up to 296 sec with a single piece nozzle or 304 sec with a high area ratio telescoping Composite propellants, based on ammonium perchlorate (AP) without aluminum, generate reduced smoke, HCl and H2O vapor will precipitate into droplets in the plume under given temperature and humidity conditions. A possible reaction is given below. 1:608 1956]. Reaction of Al with NH 4 ClO 4. Ammonium perchlorate is an oxidizer used in a large number of compositions. att tie,' Joan ~trawson,~ and Jay zhao2 I Air Force Research Laboratoty, WPAFB, OH 45433-5707 2~oxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment, Cincinnati, OH 4521 1 PERCHLORATE OCCURRENCE AND EXPOSURE Sources of Perchlorate Ammonium perchlorate is the oxidizer ingredient in solid propellant mixtures Ammonium perchlorate (AP) is a widely used oxidizing agent in composite propellants, and it has been extensively investigated in various propellant and pyrotechnic ammunitions . Ammonium nitrate composite propellant often uses magnesium and/or aluminum as fuel and delivers medium performance (I sp of about 210 sec) whereas Ammonium Perchlorate Composite Propellant often uses aluminum fuel and delivers high performance (vacuum I sp up to 296 sec with a single piece nozzle or 304 sec with a high area ratio telescoping Ammonium perchlorate (AP) is produced by reaction between ammonia and perchloric acid, and is the main reason for the industrial production of perchloric acid. 20 pound pail. Write a balanced equation for the […] ammonium perchlorate Other CH3CH3. Combustion of ammonium perchlorate-aluminum mixtures (English) National licence PAI VERNEKER / V. Perchlorate Toxicity and Risk Assessment David R. Watch Queue Queue. Working. Combined with a fuel, it can be used as a rocket propellant. The booster rockets on the space shuttle are strap-on rockets fueled by this mixture. the binder, aluminum (Al) as the metal fuel, ammonium perchlorate (AP) as the oxidizer, and Isophoronediisocyanate (IPDI) as the curing agent. Thiokol propellants. Ammonium Nitrate doesn't work well with aluminum, use magnesium instead. Perchlorate and concentrated solutions of perchlorate are denser than water (ammonium perchlorate at 1. The fuel itself is generally aluminum. Buy It Now Ammonium perchlorate (AP) is the most widely used oxidizer in solid compo- site propellants mainly because of the high oxygen content, large specific volume of product gases and extensive handling and storage experience [11]. Loading Unsubscribe from companyof1? Cancel Unsubscribe. Tannerite also contains ammonium perchlorate. The proportion for liquid thiokol to perchlorate is usually 20 Thiokol propellants. AU - Brewster, M Quinn. Burn rate catalysts determine how quickly the mixture Ammonium perchlorate ("AP") is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4ClO4. 49 + $6. A. SPACE SHUTTLE SOLID ROCKET MOTOR The SRM is cast in four segments in Utah and then transported by rail to KSC, Florida, where they are stacked vertically in pairs Start studying General Chemistry 105 Chapters 1 - 6. The reusable booster rockets of the space shuttle use a mixture of aluminum and ammonium perchlorate as fuel. © 2004-2018 Hans J. First, AP is made by electrolysis of a solution of sodium chloride (table salt or NaCl). org/10. The majority of perchlorates are produced commercially. AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE is a strong oxidizing agent. Reports 1947]. Is kclo4 ( POTASSIUM PERCHLORATE ) Soluble or Insoluble in water ? AlBr3 ( ALUMINUM BROMIDE ) C2H7NO2 ( Ammonium Acetate ) Na2SO3 ( Sodium sulfite ) ZnI2 ( Zinc Detonation Performance of Aluminium – Ammonium Nitrate Explosives Central European Journal of Energetic Materials, 2008, 5(1), -11. Ammonium perchlorate 10% Ammonium chloride 10% ZnCl2 smoke toxicity is a problem, heavy exposure can cause respiratory injury, and if you make this stuff make sure you use clean pure zinc, since heavy metal contamination will end up in the smoke. They are used for various tactical missiles. If there are traces of Sodium Chlorate present, Ammonium Chlorate will form, and this will give a dangerous unstable product. It is a colorless or white solid that is soluble in water. Ammonium perchlorate composite propellant (APCP) is a modern solid-propellant rocket used in rocket vehicles. 2006 · PDF | In this review data from the literature on thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate (AN) and the effect of additives to their thermal decomposition 2 Table 1. Cohen‡ Cohen Professional Services, Redlands, California 92373 Amodi” ed Price–Boggs–Derrmodel isapplied to compute the linearand nonlinear combustion response prop- I'm planning on using ammonium perchlorate as a solid fuel source (I'm aware of the thyroid issues and have taken precautions). Molar mass of Al is 26. 49 shipping. 1 explosive if powdered into particles smaller than 15 microns in diameter or if powdered into larger particles but thoroughly dried. Potassium perchlorate 72 Aluminium 28 Potassium perchlorate 70 Aluminium 27 Sulfur 3 Potassium perchlorate 64 Aluminium 23 Sulfur 13 The first had a detonation velocity of 1223m/s, the second 1418m/s and the third 1427m/s. (2018) Ammonium Perchlorate as an Effective Additive for Enhancing the Combustion and Propulsion Performance of Al/CuO Nanothermites. Using metal magnesium aluminum oxide, generating a lot of gas causing decomposition of ammonium perchlorate Usage: Used as a rocket propellant and explosive compound, can also be used for making fireworks and artificial hail proof. There are high levels of perchlorate naturally in some areas such as the southwestern United States. The detonation properties of mechanically activated mixtures of ammonium perchlorate and aluminum were studied. aluminum ion. 2514/ Ammonium perchlorate composite propellant (APCP) is a modern solid-propellant rocket used The perchlorate serves as the oxidizer, while the binder and aluminum serve as the fuel. write the formula for Aluminum sulfide. Aluminum Perchlorate Al(ClO4)3 Molar Mass, Molecular Weight Chapter 6: Flash, Burst Charges and Whistle Mix Flash #1 Source: Lancaster[2], listed as Thunder #1 . W. As a result, the chemical, thermodynamic, and kinetic properties of ammonium perchlorate have been comprehensively investigated. The binder provides the structural glue or matrix in which solid loadings are held. It is a powerful oxidizing material. Supply Co. On ignition, the reaction that takes place i The solid fuel in the booster stage of the space shuttle is a mixture of ammonium perchlorate A process for producing ammonium perchlorate comprising reacting, in an aqueous medium, a metal perchlorate selected from the group consisting of sodium perchlorate, lithium perchlorate, calcium perchlorate, strontium perchlorate and barium perchlorate with an ammonium compound having an anion selected from the group consisting of bicarbonate forms salts with most cations. This complements alternative listing at inorganic compounds by Here are some examples: Aluminum sulfide - Al2S3 ; Beryllium chloride - BeCl2 ; Boron iodide - BI3 ; Calcium nitride - Ca3N2 ; Copper phosphide - Cu3P2 Table 1. 2006 · PDF | In this review data from the literature on thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate (AN) and the effect of additives to their thermal decomposition © 2004-2018 Hans J. It is the salt of perchloric acid and ammonia. A solid fuel consisting of Ammonium Perchlorate, and either a fuel, or a binder and a fuel. It is stable in pure form at ordinary temperature, but decomposes at a temperature of 150°C or above. lowest prices on aluminum, ammonium perchlorate, antimony sulfide, asphaltum Please note that there are price breaks per pound, the more that you get. * Ammonium Perchlorate is a HIGHLY REACTIVE CHEMICAL and a DANGEROUS EXPLOSION HAZARD. 000 kilograms of aluminum metal? [ARCHIVED THREAD] - tannerite- just ammonium nitrate and powdered aluminum (Page 1 of 3) ARCHIVED; Previous Page. fireworks, some allow only "Safe and Sane" fireworks (Class C fireworks that do not move or leave the ground), and some states or counties and cities ban the The standard Gibbs free energy of formation of a compound is the change of Gibbs free energy that accompanies the formation of 1 mole of a substance in its standard . [1] 1g HMTD blasting cap, was extremely loud. Jan 5, 2018 Laser ignition of stoichiometric mixture based on aluminum nanopowder and ammonium perchlorate were studied experimentally. The thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) with Al and Zn metallic particles was studied at different heating rates in dry air atmosphere and the combustion behavior of AP/Al/Zn propellant was evaluated. Mil-Spec Industries Corp. , is a If I remember right, PBS, maybe Secrets of the Dead, had a show where a guy proved that the Hindenburg’s skin was coated with ammonium perchlorate and powdered aluminum